The polarized light intensity is halved, through the process of the filter. The polarizer in the above illustration polarizes the light in the vertical plane. If the polarized light is then put through a horizontal polarizer, nothing gets through. This seems to make sense.
However, if the second polarizer is set at an angle of 45-degrees to the first, half of the light gets through again. How can this be, if the photons are all polarized in the vertical plane?
There seems to be no coherent explanation for this phenomenon and quantum mechanics; however, if we apply Unified Absolute Relativity to the system, we can see that it is, as ever, perfectly simple and simply sensible.
Unified Absolute Relativity states that the light consists of waves from excited source atoms, not photon particles. These atoms will all be polarized at various angles to the polarizing filter, which will react with half of them.
The vertical polarizing filter will absorb or reflect energy from the originating atoms, but only those at ∓ 45-degrees of the horizontal arrows in Illustration 1, which, on average, will be half of the atoms in any originating unpolarized light source.
If a horizontal polarizer should be placed in the system after the vertical polarizer, the horizontal polarizer will react with the remainder of the originating atom and nothing will pass through.
However, if the second polarizer is position at 45-degrees to the vertical polarizer, the area under the right-pointing arrow and above the left-pointing arrow will not react with any atom at the light source, so half of the half of the originating light passes through.
The photons have not been polarized during this process; the light-source atoms have not altered if they have not reacted with any filter. They are still polarized at various angles, but their range has been restricted by the process.
In quantum mechanics, photon that have been through polarizers have been perceived as having been polarized in the direction of the polarizer, say, vertically, because the more-horizontal atoms have all reacted with the filter. Any measurement of the resultant photons to be in the vertical or horizontal direction, will all show vertical, as the horizontally-inclined atoms have all reacted to the filter.
Unified Absolute Relativity shows, every time, that it makes no sense to view sub-atomic particles as particles; they are merely potential effects, atom-to-atom reactions.