Tuesday, 13 August 2013
“Sometimes attaining the deepest familiarity with a question is our best substitute for actually having the answer.” - Brian Greene, The Elegant Universe
In that sentence, I think that Brian Greene has summarized the attitude of many physicists, especially those whose training and experience has driven them into an over-familiarity with all the unanswered questions in quantum mechanics. The standard model proposed too many inexplicable phenomena, with which too many physicists have become too complacently over-familiar. Quantum mechanics and classical physics just cannot be reconciled, too many say. Which would be fine if quantum mechanics then went on to explain everything that classical physics could not, but it doesn't. It attains the deepest familiarity with the questions and presents that as an alternative to having any answers.
But Unified Absolute Relativity has answered all of the outstanding questions, all clearly illustrated in my book, "Everything There Is". To obtain your copy, please click here.
Monday, 12 August 2013
The four fundamental forces of nature are The Strong Force, The Weak Force, Electromagnetism and Gravity. The first three have all been integrated into the standard model, with well-establishedcalculations, confirmed by experiment and observation. So far so good. But it is the fourth of these, gravity, so ubiquitous in the real world, that refuses to be included in any model of quantum mechanics. Quantum gravity is seen to be the key to the discovery of any Grand Unifying Theory.
So, let's have a closer look at the four forces and how they are understood to operate and cooperate, or not, as the case may be:
Gravity is the weakest, but it has an infinite range. The electromagnetic force also has infinite range, but it is many times stronger than gravity. The weak and strong forces are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles. Despite its name, the weak force is much stronger than gravity, but it is indeed the weakest of the other three. The strong force, as the name suggests, is the strongest of all four fundamental interactions.
Gravity is the force that presses us to the face of our planet, electromagnetism is the whole spectrum of light and magnetic field effects, the strong force is what holds the sub-atomic particles of atoms together and the weak force is what sometimes forces atoms apart (atomic decay, such as when uranium eventually decays into lead and other particles).
Of all four forces, it is gravity that stands alone, seemingly aloof and having nothing to do, that is no interaction, with the other three. But surely it must – gravity is everywhere, affecting everything. It makes no sense to have a theory of how everything works without gravity playing a major role. The first to define the laws of gravity was, of course, Isaac Newton. But it was Albert Einstein who better described what gravity actually is. He devised two theories of relativity:
Special Relativity, published in 1905: concerned with the concept of time and its dependency upon the relative motion of observers.
General Relativity, published in 1916: concerned with the concept of gravity, arguing that gravity is the geometric effect brought about by the curvature of space. Space is curved, Einstein postulates, due to the matter in it. The greater, or denser the matter, the greater the curvature of space (and therefore time).
It is the theory of General Relativity that cannot be incorporated into the standard model of quantum mechanics:
Quantum mechanics can be used to explain the chaotic and sometimes random actions within and between atoms. On this level, the effect of gravity is so insignificant that it is hugely overpowered by radiation and other forces. While general relativity describes an orderly and predictable universe at the macro level - Einstein was known to say “God does not play dice” - it is unable to explain the unpredictable subatomic environment that quantum mechanics describes. Conversely, quantum mechanics fails to explain the forces and relationships governing large objects. Both sciences seem fairly suited for their particular purposes, although both leave conspicuous questions to be answered. If both general relativity and quantum mechanics could ever be reconciled, with a “theory of everything”, a single set of equations that could could possibly explain all the mechanics of the universe. After Einstein formulated general relativity, he spent the rest of his life looking for such a theory. He never succeeded in finding it.
So I'm sure you can see the difficulty in attempting to unify general relativity with the standard model of quantum mechanics – even Albert Einstein couldn't make it work. Perhaps we need a new standard model?
The new standard model of quantum physics can be found in my book "Everything There Is". For your copy, click here.
When the universe came into being at the big bang event, matter was split from its counterpart antimatter. In energy terms, antimatter is the opposite to matter. This means that, should the two meet, they counteract and cancel each other out. The sum energy of the universe is, as it has always been, zero.
But as scientists use more and more advanced and sophisticated instruments and probes to explore and measure the universe, it has become clear that there is practically no antimatter.
What has happened to it all? There should be as much antimatter as there is matter; not roughly as much, but exactly as much!
So where has all the antimatter gone?
If you would like to find the answer to this and to many of the major questions puzzling physicists today, you will find them in my book, "Everything There Is".
To order a copy, simply click here.
Sunday, 11 August 2013
The Different Masses of Particles
When physicists investigate the different particles there are in the standard model of quantum mechanics, they are puzzled – it seems strange that some particles have different masses than others. Why strange? They must have, you might say, because they're different sizes. But then the photon, the particle of light, is said to be massless. It has to be, to travel at the speed of light, because it is light. Nothing with mass could travel that fast.
How does this come about? Well, one theory is the Higgs Field, from which you will have heard of the Higgs boson: the Higgs field, made up of Higgs bosons, is everywhere, according to this theory, through which some particles can pass without any interaction, without being slowed down in other words, so that they are massless, able to travel at the speed of light, like photons; and some are made slower by interaction, hence made heavier, given mass, like electrons. Without the hidden Higgs field, in effect, everything would travel at the speed of light and nothing would have any mass at all.
What has happened is that the standard model has hit a problem, something that it cannot explain or describe, so invents a whole new field full of particles to fit a theory “tagged on” to the standard model. This has happened time and again, with new bits being added on to try to make the standard model work. A new theoretic attachment almost always requires a whole new set of particles and so, certainly in the case of the Higgs boson, the people at CERN* start searching.
And, in this case, finding … haven't they? Or have they?
My book "Everything There Is" gives a much more simple and satisfying answer to the problem of the different masses of particles. To view or purchase your copy, please click here.
*(At CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, physicists and engineers are using the world's largest and most complex scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter - the fundamental particles. The particles are made to collide together at close to the speed of light. The process gives the physicists clues about how the particles interact, which supposedly provides insights into the fundamental laws of nature.)
My book, detailing my theory of everything, Unified Absolute Relativity. Please click on the link below to see inside and to purchase.